Using Different Types of Feedback to Improve Performance in Humanities

26 Dec 2015

Effective feedback is essential to improve students’ performance. Such feedback should not only indicate a student’s current level of performance, but it should also be able to help a student set his desired goals. This mixed methods action research compares the effectiveness of criterion-referenced feedback, norm-referenced feedback, as well as a combination of criterion and norm-referenced feedback, in improving students’ performance in two Humanities subjects, Geography and Social Studies across three different schools in Singapore. The findings and understanding of how the use of different feedback influence performance will inform teaching practitioners on the approaches to take when providing quality feedback. In addition, educators are encouraged to re-examine their feedback practices in order to support formative assessments in the classroom.

Keywords: criterion-referenced feedback, norm-referenced feedback, quality feedback, formative assessment

Tan Chai Choon (Senior Teacher/Bedok Green Secondary School),>

Sutinah Suid (Senior Teacher/Tanglin Secondary School),

Neo Lay Kheng (Senior Teacher/Nan Chiau High School),

For more information about this project or research collaborations, please contact Tan Chai Choon at